Interannual Variability of Stratospheric Final Warming in the Southern Hemisphere and its Tropospheric Origin


The relation between interannual variability of stratospheric final warming (SFW) and tropospheric circulation in the Southern Hemisphere (SH) is explored using reanalysis data and a linear barotropic model. The analysis is focused on quasi-stationary waves with zonal wavenumber 1 (s = 1 QSWs; s is zonal wavenumber), which are the dominant component of the SH extratropical planetary waves. First, interannual variability of SFW is investigated in terms of amplitudes of stratospheric and tropospheric s = 1 QSWs, and wave transmission properties of the mean flow from the late austral winter to spring. Upward Eliassen–Palm flux due to s = 1 QSWs is larger from the stratosphere down to the middle troposphere in early-SFW years than late-SFW years. More favorable conditions for propagation of s = 1 stationary waves into the stratosphere are identified in early-SFW years. These results indicate that the amplification of tropospheric s = 1 QSWs and the favorable conditions for their propagation into the stratosphere lead to the amplification of stratospheric s = 1 QSWs, and hence earlier SFWs. Next, numerical calculations using a linear barotropic model are performed to explore how tropospheric s = 1 QSWs at high latitudes amplifies in early-SFW years. By using tropical Rossby wave source and horizontal winds in the reanalysis data as a source and background field, respectively, differences in s = 1 steady responses between early- and late-SFWs are examined at high latitudes. It is suggested that the larger amplitudes of tropospheric s = 1 QSWs in early-SFW years are attributed to differences in wave propagation characteristics associated with structure of the midlatitude jets in austral spring.

Journal of Climate