A three-dimensional analysis on the role of atmospheric waves in the climatology and interannual variability of stratospheric final warming in the Southern Hemisphere


Stratospheric final warming (SFW) in the Southern Hemisphere is examined in terms of their interannual variability and climatology using reanalysis data from January 1979 to March 2014. First, it is shown from a two‐dimensional transformed Eulerian mean (TEM) analysis that a time‐integrated vertical component of Eliassen‐Palm flux during the spring is significantly related with SFW date. To clarify the role of residual mean flow in the interannual variability of the SFW date, SFWs are categorized into early and late groups according to the SFW date and their differences are examined. Significant difference in potential temperature tendency is observed in the middle and lower stratosphere in early October. Their structure in the meridional cross section accords well with that of vertical potential temperature advection by the residual mean flow. Difference in heating rate by shortwave radiation is minor. These results suggest that the adiabatic heating associated with the residual mean flow largely affects polar stratospheric temperature during austral spring and SFW date. The analysis is extended to investigate the longitudinal structure by using a three‐dimensional (3‐D) TEM theory. The significant difference in potential temperature tendency is mainly observed around the Weddell Sea at 10 hPa. Next, climatological 3‐D structure of a vertical component of the residual mean flow in association with SFW is examined in terms of the effect on the troposphere. The results suggest that a downward residual mean flow from the stratosphere penetrates into underlying troposphere over East Antarctica and partly influences tropospheric temperature there.

Journal of Geophysical Research: Atmospheres